Articles
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Contents

Connely, Michael S. (2006) Evolution Takes Time, Bulletin, Maryland Motor Truck Association

MacNeil, Sue (1999)  Enhancing Safety in Commercial Vehicles Through Systematic Measurement And Remediation With Lower Financial Commitment.  Proceedings of the Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference XI; Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Cavalier, Paul and MacNeil, Sue (1999) Maximizing Your Training Budget By Hiring The Best Trainer You Can.  Proceedings of the Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference XI; Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

MacNeil, Sue (1994) The Development of the Driver Competency Assessment

MacNeil, Sue (1989)  A Taxonomy of Road Side Information Criteria as Witnessed by a Laboratory Experiment.

MacNeil, Sue (1988)  DRIVER ASSESSMENT IN ONTARIO:  A Comparative View of the Current System Outlining Possible Amendents to Increase Road Safety

MacNeil, Sue (1983)  Our Traffic System and the Onus of Responsibility

MacNeil, Sue (1988)  A New Mirror Apparatus Design to Solve Problems in Sub-Populations of Drivers Relating to Visual Iinformation Processing

MacNeil, Sue (1990)  Reducing the Risk  Driving into the 90's 1990 Conference sponsored by theAutomotive Journalists Association of Canada  Toronto, Ontario, Canada

MacNeil, Sue (1993)  The Growing Challenge in Traffic Safety Education:  A Move toward Multi-level, Multidisciplinary, Integrative Education

MacNeil, Sue (1991)  The Autonomy of Youth in Canada:  Are we taking this issue seriously enough?

MacNeil, Sue (1991)  Elemental Differentiation in Road Signs:  Using a Theoretical Paradigmatic Approach

MacNeil, Sue (1992)  Maximum Independent Mobility

MacNeil, Sue (1992)   Changing the Questions We Ask:  An Argument for the Need to Change the Method We Collect and Share Data

MacNeil, Sue (1994)  Investigation Of The NASA Tlx's Ability To Differentiate Experimental Task Loadings In A Dynamic Urban Driving Environment

MacNeil, Sue (1994)  Driver Competency Assessment  Presentiation to the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators AAMVA Conference Tampa, Florida, USA


The Development of the Driver Competency Assessment

Abstract

Of the many erroneous assumptions we have made about driving over the past decades none have had such a negative impact in our quest to find solutions for specific target populations than the assumption that driving is a psychomotor skill that can be measured by prototypical skill-oriented driving performance criteria.  Individual differences in ability and preparedness clearly suggest that we need to have a much more sophisticated understanding of the task in light of these considerations.  Attentional demands of the task far outweigh physical requirements of vehicle operation yet we still place a great deal of emphasis on how well a person can perform specific tasks such as three point turns and other road maneuvers.  The second erroneous assumption that has and is giving us problems is the assumption that operating a motor vehicle safely and legally are synonymous

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Enhancing Safety in Commercial Vehicles Through Systematic Measurement And Remediation With Lower Financial Commitment

Abstract

A systematic assessment procedure was implemented in a medium sized fleet resulting in only a portion of the retraining being undertaken in large vehicles and the rest of the remediation being conducted in passenger vehicles.  It was found that if the specific problems drivers were having can be clearly profiled much of the remediation can be conducted in small vehicles, either vans equipped with side mirrors or cars.  The typical training areas for larger vehicles are restricted to truck routes and therefore the number of opportunities for learnings per hour are dramatically reduced due to the fact that these routes have lengthy distances between turns and are relatively straight and less complex.  After the retraining in small vehicles was complete trainers then transferred these skills over to the drivers in large vehicles.  This process was found to lower the vehicle, employee and training costs with equal safety outcomes as measured by an intermediate outcome measure of safety called the Driver Competency Assessment Level 2.

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Maximizing Your Training Budget By Hiring The Best Trainer You Can

Abstract

In 1997 the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton undertook a relatively systematic and thorough process to hire a trainer for their mid sized and diverse municipal fleet.  The competition was well advertised and open to all. After the initial screening from the human resource standpoint, which included qualifications, certificates and experience, a four stage process was undertaken.  After the number of candidates was short-listed to four a hands-on assessment process was implemented.  Each candidate completed a written test for driving and safety theory which consisted of a split of open-ended and forced choice questions.  All candidates then had their driving assessed while driving a fleet dump truck using the Driver Competency Assessment DCA2, and following that had their teaching skills assessed using the DCA 3.  The final component was an interview in front of a panel of managers which included a presentation on Wheel Security.  It was found that the process allowed the best candidate the opportunity to show their talents and skills to best advantage.  This process is suggested as a model for fleets to enhance training programs by hiring the best candidate for a training position irrespective of formal certificates and qualifications.

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A Taxonomy of Road Side Information Criteria as Witnessed by a Laboratory Experiment

Abstract

The task of driving is no longer the physically demanding job of years gone by but has become an ever increasingly difficult cognitive task.  Bearing this in mind the road environment and the ensuing signage must reflect a simplistic methodology to enable drivers to guide their vehicles through the road system safely.  This paper will suggest possible sign criteria that may help drivers, particularly in information overload situations.  It was found that positive signs were processed more quickly and accurately than negative signs and that symbols were also processed more quickly than word messages.

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DRIVER ASSESSMENT IN ONTARIO

A Comparative View of the Current System Outlining Possible Amendents to Increase Road Safety

Abstract

In light of the problems understanding the human element in the driving task and it's inherent sociological complexities, assessing drivers is of primary concern to all those involved in traffic safety.  A cumulative multivariate risk scale to categorize an individual's possible recidivism of collision involvement is postulated.  As well, additional measures that may have an impact on the assessing of new drivers entering the system will be discussed.  An evaluation of this new measurement tool will be discussed in terms of validating it's projected effectiveness in reducing collision involvement as well as dt's possible use as a predictor of collision involvement.  Reliability and validity measures are suggested for the existing system and are postulated for the risk scale.  Possible intervention strategies will delineate those individuals required to undergo this level of evaluation.

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Our Traffic System and the Onus of Responsibility

Abstract

The major focus of this paper dealt with different aspects of driver behaviour and attitudes, both individual and societal as reviewed in current driving research literature.  Specifically the systemis weaknesses that permit deviant drivers accessibility, through poor education, testing and follow-up enforcement has been dealt with.  Three small independent studies have been included to clarify causal factors relating to system's weaknesses explored in this study; societal compliance to Section 177 and Section 178 of the Highway Traffic Act, attitudinal effects of television on youth and perceptual effects of field independence on individuals in the driving task.  Conclusions drawn from this study point to poor education due to poor quality education availability and weak testing criteria, as well as diffusion of responsibility within the system as major contributing factors in this dilemma.  Problems current to solution acquisition are as difficult and diverse as is the study of driver behaviour despite and because of its complexities and inconsistencies.  Three solutions cited in this paper are methodically upgrading the present system of education, setting new testing criteria and consciousness raising pertaining to the moral responsibility of the general driving population.

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A New Mirror Apparatus Design to Solve Problems in Sub-Populations of Drivers Relating to Visual Iinformation Processing

Abstract

In assessing the needs of drivers with regards to visual information processing it has become apparent that there is a growing need for a special mirror apparatus to be installed for a subgroup of the population.  Individuals with an inability to turn their beads to make a shoulder check are at a dangerous disadvantage due to the lack of information when making lateral movements.  "Improper lookout", has been assessed as one of the major driver errors that result in traffic collisions.  This paper is intended to both develop a mirror apparatus design, identify and delineate the sub-group in question and suggest the appropriate methodology for testing the design.  Since the problem is confounded by a poor understanding of appropriate information sampling procedures, further suggestions dealing with the educational aspects will be included.

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Reducing the Risk

Abstract

Forthcoming

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THE GROWING CHALLEGE IN TRAFFIC SAFETY EDUCATION
A Move toward Multi-level, Multidisciplinary, Integrative Education

Abstract

The following is a brief surmnary of both current driver education and a proposal for a new and integrative traffic safety educational system to meet the growing demands and challenges in this complex field.  The paper reflects the views of Sue MacNeil, traffic safety educational consultant.

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THE AUTONOMY OF YOUTH IN CANADA
Are we taking this issue seriously enough?

A philosophical discussion of how young Canadians are given information regarding alcohol,
growing up in a society that uses and abuses alcohol and how they may interpret these messages.

Abstract

The debate around the advertising of alcohol products and the way in which Canadian youths are exposed to and relate to the use and abuse of alcohol will be discussed from a philosophical perspective.  In reviewing the literature concerning the portrayal of alcohol in television programming, advertising and entertainment in general, it is proposed that the debate be extended to include how consumerism itself in the Canadian context is adding to the growing disparity between reality and the mythical portrayal of Canadian society on Television.  The degree to which some of these issues negatively affect road safety will be examined.  Some suggestions will be made to counter these disparities in hopes of broadening our understanding of how youths perceive the maturing process.

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ELEMENTAL DIFFERENTIATION IN ROAD SIGNS
Using a Theoretical Paradigimatic Approach

Abstract

To examine the road environment information system a theoretical framework will be postulated to accommodate road user characteristics.  Information systems often focus on the legibility, discrimination, readability, comprehension and utility of visual messages.  This becomes a particularly difficult and demanding task when the messages are embedded in a dynamic environment. and need to be interpreted by a heterogeneous group with diverse visual, intellectual, language and cognitive skills.  Often times one needs to step beyond the immediate task and look at the more global picture.  This paper will explore aspects of information delivery that looks at elemental differentiation, degree of generalization and learnability of the signs on roadways used to inform and direct road users.  A theoretical. paradigmatic approach will be explored and assessed to understand its ability to add to our understanding of driver task analysis.  Particular attention will be paid to the colour, shape and placement of pertinent information within the transportation system.

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Maximum Independent Mobility

Abstract

An argument for the rights of all persons to access public spaces in the way that protects the safety of all road users including the individual.  This philosophical discussion brings out the issue of the safety and mobility balance that must be found for the system to function properly.  It suggests that if society values its members it must also take some responsibility in setting the standards of behaviour for the interaction between its members.   On the other hand the individual must accept these standards if they are to remain functioning members of the larger group and participate in  their democratic right to try to change the standard or to work within it.  This paper explores the rights and responsibilities of individuals and society and the responsibility they have to each other.  To conclude the argument it is postulated that only under such humane situations can a road user be a fully functioning member of society in that they can access the system to the limit that they do not impede or cause harm to other users.

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CHANGING THE QUESTIONS WE ASK
An Argument for the Need to Change the Method We Collect and Share Data

Abstract

The underlying assumptions of health care have to a large degree been curative and treatment oriented during the past century.  With the paradigmatic shift, first initiated by the LaLonde Report in 1974, prevention and societal well-being has taken on a new focus.  With this move comes a need to evaluate our methodology of collecting data including spatial location and environmental factors affecting the health and well-being of Canadians.  This paper will focus on the investigation of data collection procedures regarding the area of road trauma.  It was found that the current method of collecting crash and incident data leaves significant gaps that inhibit the implementation of effective preventive measures to reduce death and injury on our roads.  Alternate data systems will be suggested and pilot studies moving in this direction in Ontario will be examined.

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Investigation Of The NASA TLX's Ability To Differentiate
Experimental Task Loadings In A Dynamic Urban Driving Environment

Abstract

Subjective ratings are frequently used to measure mental workload. This study attempts to use the NASA TLX (Task Load Index) to investigate four different conditions of task loading while subjects drive a vehicle in a normal urban environment.  It was postulated that if the index was adequately sensitive it would be able to differentiate between these four conditions.  Since the particular index being used does not have ratings relating to safety, orientation and control, these were added to the ratings scales for evalution. The NASA TLX was indeed sensitive enough to differentiate between the four different conditions particularly in the experimental task loading conditions. This study will suggest applications for the use of the NASA TLX in developing ergonomic criteria to evaluate new technologies, using subjective workload in conjunction with expert observations, to assess the effects of technological developments on driving.

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